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All-Wheel-Drive Information from Vehicle Manufacturers

The Bureau of Automotive Repair asked manufacturers of vehicles sold in California to provide information regarding compatibility of their vehicles with single-axle dynamometers. Not all vehicle manufacturers responded. This page presents information from those that did.

Traction Control may also affect vehicle compatibility with single-axle dynamometers. Click on traction control for manufacturers' information on that subject.

Placing any non-compatible vehicle on a single-axle dynamometer could result in safety hazards to technicians and in damage to the vehicle. Vehicles which use all-wheel drive or traction control may not be clearly marked. Use common sense and take all necessary precautions when placing any vehicle on the dynamometer.

BAR does not distinguish between full-time four-wheel drive and all-wheel drive for testing purposesThe following table includes pertinent information with regard to full-time four-wheel drive and all-wheel drive vehicles.


Vehicle Make Comments About Drive-Wheel Configuration
Acura The 1996-1999 Acura SLX 4WD is part-time 4WD and is testable on the dynamometer.
The 2001-2002 Acura MDX is AWD and cannot be tested on a 2-wheel dynamometer.
Audi The VIN identifies drive train configuration, including identification of AWD. See the Audi table for specifics on Audi AWD vehicles.
Alfa-Romeo All Alfa-Romeo vehicles that have been sold in the US are two-wheel drive.
BMW See the BMW table, which indicates AWD by engine family (1988-up).
Chevrolet AWD was optional on 1990-1998 Astro Van and 1995-1998 Blazer.
Chrysler Some 1991-1998 Town and Country Vans were optionally equipped with AWD. These mini-vans are normally identified by the AWD decals on the exterior. 1992-1995 can be identified by a "K" in the 5th position of the VIN.
Dodge Continuous four-wheel drive systems on 1974-1979 Dodge pickups and Ramcharger cannot be disengaged unless vehicle is equipped with an aftermarket part-time retrofit kit.
Some 1991-1998 Caravans were optionally equipped with AWD. These mini-vans are normally identified by the AWD decals on the exterior. 1992-1995 can be identified by a "K" in the 5th position of the VIN.
All 1989-1990 Colt DL Wagon, 1990 Colt Vista Wagon, 1991-1998 Stealth R/T Turbo are AWD.
Eagle All 1992-1998 Summit Wagon, 1989-1998 Talon TSI Turbo are AWD.
Ferrari All Ferrari vehicles are two-wheel drive.
Fiat All Fiat vehicles that have been sold in the US are two-wheel drive.
Ford Positions 6-8 of VIN identify 4WD and AWD for 1988 to 1998 vehicles. See the Ford table for VIN codes.
GMC AWD was optional on 1990-1998 Safari Van and 1995-1998 Jimmy.
AWD was standard on 1990-1991 Cyclone and Typhoon.
Honda Honda describes the 1985-1991 Civic Wagon 4WD as a full-time 4WD vehicle which can be operated in 2WD mode by moving the disengagement lever on the transmission (refer to Honda service manual for procedure). Since Smog Check stations may not have this manual, BAR recommends a TSI test for these vehicles.
The 1997-2002 CR-V 4WD is AWD and cannot be tested on a 2-wheel dynamometer.
The 1994-2002 Passport 4WD is part-time 4WD and is testable on the dynamometer.
Infinity The 1997-1998 "QX4" (Infinity version of Pathfinder) is AWD.
Isuzu The 1990-1993 Impulse RS (turbo) is AWD. All other 4WD vehicles from Isuzu are part-time 4WD.
Jaguar The Jaguar X-Type is all-wheel drive.
Jeep Quadra-trac was offered on some 1974 through 1979 Jeep Cherokee, Wagoneer, J10, J20, and CJ-7 models with automatic transmissions. 1992-1998 Grand Cherokee, Grand Wagoneer, Wagoneer LTD were equipped with Quadra-trac. Quadra-trac vehicles are full-time 4WD and cannot be tested on a dynamometer.
Lamborghini The Diablo VT & 6.0 (1994-2001) is AWD; all other Diablos are not. No pre-1994 Lamborghini passenger car has 4WD OR AWD. The LM002 4x4 was sold from 1988 to 1992, but is over the 8500 lbs. test weight and the 4WD is part time and disengageable.
Land Rover Since 1987, all Land Rovers are AWD. Range Rover has a viscous coupling, all others have a geared center differential which is lockable.
Lexus The 2000-2001 LX470 and 2000-2001 RX 300 (4WD model) are AWD equipped and cannot be tested on a single-axle dyno.
Lotus All Lotus vehicles are two-wheel drive.
Mazda 1989-1998 MPV 4x4 is part-time 4WD and is testable. 1987-1993 B2600 4x4 is also part-time 4WD and is testable. 1988-1991 323 Turbo is AWD and cannot be tested on the dynamometer.
Mercedes-Benz 1990 and newer models with 4-MATIC badging are AWD.
Mitsubishi All 1996-'98 3000 GT 3.0L turbos were sold with AWD, identified by "N" or "W" in the fifth VIN position.
Some 1996 Expo/Expo LRVs with 2.4L engine were sold with AWD, identified by "C" or "E" in the fifth VIN position.
Some 1996-98 Eclipse 2.0 L turbos were sold with AWD, identified by "G" or "L" in the fifth VIN position.
Nissan The 1990-1992 "AXXESS 4WD" can be identified by badging and an ID plate on the firewall. The third character of the firewall ID (not the VIN) is "N" if the vehicle is AWD.
Oldsmobile AWD was standard on 1991-1998 Bravada.
Plymouth Continuous four-wheel drive system on 1974-1979 Plymouth Trailduster cannot be disengaged unless vehicle is equipped with an aftermarket part-time retrofit kit.
Some 1991-1998 Voyagers were optionally equipped with AWD. These mini-vans are normally identified by the AWD decals on the exterior. 1992-1995 can be identified by a "K" in the 5th position of the VIN.
All 1989-1990 Colt DL Wagon, 1990 Colt Vista Wagon, 1991-1994 Laser RS Turbo are AWD.
Pontiac AWD was optional on the 1988-1990 6000 STE.
Porsche 1989-2000 Carrera 4, 1996-1998 Carrera 4S and 1996-1997 911 Turbo are AWD.
Saab All Saabs are two-wheel (front-wheel) drive.
Subaru

Subarus produced from 1987-1997 are either 2WD or AWD. The eleventh character of the VIN identifies AWD. See the Subaru table for VIN codes. All Subarus produced from 1998-2003 are AWD.

Suzuki All Suzuki vehicles sold in the US are part time 4WD.
Toyota The 2000-2001 RAV4 4WD and Land Cruiser, and the 2001 Highlander 4WD are equipped with AWD. The Celica "All-Trac" (all model-years) has AWD and cannot be tested on a single-axle dyno.
Volkswagen The VIN identifies drivetrain configuration, including identification of AWD. See the Volkswagen table for specifics on Volkswagen AWD vehicles.
Volvo Positions 6-8 of the VIN identify drivetrain configuration, including identification of AWD.